Blood pressure in cats and dogs. A clinical manual
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Blood pressure in cats and dogs. A clinical manual

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A practical and simple manual on the methods and techniques to measure blood pressure in cats and dogs, how to interpret the results obtained, and the recommended treatments. It includes a brief review of the current official recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), with clear rules and guidelines.

Enrique Ynaraja Ramírez

Dr Ynaraja holds a degree and PhD in Veterinary Medicine from the Complutense University of Madrid. He is an AVEPA (Spanish Small Animal Veterinary Association) certified specialist in small animal cardiology. He has spent time as a professor at two faculties of Veterinary Medicine – at the Complutense University of Madrid and at the CEU Cardinal Herrera University in Valencia.

Dr Ynaraja is a founding member of CardioVet, a company that provides remote diagnostic services in veterinary cardiology to over 1,000 clinics in Spain, Portugal and Latin America, and currently works as a vet for Servicios Veterinarios Albeytar in La Vall d’Uixó, Castellón, Spain.

He has published 140 articles in international journals from 18 countries, participated in over 500 courses and conferences held in 22 different countries and published 8 books and several online courses. Dr Ynaraja also actively collaborates with leading companies from the Spanish small animal veterinary sector to develop training courses and programmes, to disseminate information and to introduce and launch both pharmacological and nutritional products.

1. Blood pressure


Blood pressure measurement methods

Normal values

Factors influencing blood pressure

Blood pressure regulation mechanisms

Immediate regulation: rapid control mechanisms

Delayed regulation: mid‑term control mechanisms

Delayed regulation: long-term control mechanisms

2. Blood pressure measurement


Blood pressure dynamics

Anatomical locations for measuring blood pressure

Measurements at the base of the tail

Measurements on a forelimb

Measurements on a hindlimb

Blood pressure measurement protocol for clinical practice

3. Blood pressure measurement techniques


What other methods are available?

Doppler systems

Oscillometric systems

High-definition oscillometry (HDO)

Plethysmography and photoplethysmography

Which parameters are measured?

4. Arterial hypertension


Values obtained

Diseases that cause hypertension in cats and dogs

Hypertension and kidney disease

Hypertension and obesity

Hypertension and endocrine disorders

Target organ damage

The central nervous system

The heart

The eyeballs

The kidneys

The blood vessels

5. Drug treatment of hypertension


Courses of action to reduce blood pressure

Modification of cardiac output

Control over circulating volume


Antihypertensive drugs

Adrenergic receptor blockers

Calcium channel blockers

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs)

Endothelin receptor antagonists

Renin inhibitors

Direct vasodilators

Centrally acting antihypertensives

Catecholamine-depleting drugs

Aldosterone antagonists

6. Hypotension


Causes of hypotension in cats and dogs

Diseases and procedures that cause hypotension

Heart failure

Diabetic coma or ketoacidosis



Direct alterations in blood vessels

7. Drug treatment of hypotension


Courses of action to increase blood pressure

Drugs for treating hypotension

Sympathomimetic drugs

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Other cardiac stimulants

Fluid therapy solutions


  • Autor/es Enrique Ynaraja Ramírez
  • Fecha de edición junio 2018
  • Nº Páginas 128
  • Encuadernación Tapa dura
  • Tamaño 17 X 24
  • Idioma Inglés

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