Vet Update. Congestive cardiac failure
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Vet Update. Congestive cardiac failure

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The goal of this guide is to provide veterinary cardiologists as well as internal medicine and emergency and critical care specialists with current information on the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of congestive heart failure in dogs, together with important resources for diagnosis and recommendations for treating dogs with this condition. This book includes many images to aid the reader’s understanding.

Javier Esteban Rodríguez Velarde

Javier Esteban Rodríguez Velarde earned his degree in veterinary medicine from the Universidad Agraria of Ecuador in 2006. He trained in the Cardiology Service at the California Animal Hospital (United States) and in other cardiology and ultrasound services in both human and veterinary medicine. He was a veterinary clinician at Lucky veterinary hospital, Quito (Ecuador), from 2006 to 2010, where he founded the cardiology and ultrasound service and served as medical director from 2010 until 2015. Since 2011, he has been a professor at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidad San Francisco (USFQ) of Quito and a cardiologist and ultrasonographer at the USFQ Veterinary Specialty Hospital. He is currently medical director of the Cardiomedicc veterinary cardiology and ultrasound centre. He has lectured on cardiology, ultrasonography, and intensive care in more than 40 courses and international conferences in Ecuador and elsewhere.

1. Definition

2. Pathophysiology


Compensatory mechanisms

Neurohumoral activation

Cardiac remodelling and congestion

3. Clinical approach

Evaluation of clinical signs

Respiratory clinical signs

Clinical signs of low cardiac output

General or systemic clinical signs

Left-sided CHF

Right-sided CHF

Functional classification

4. Diagnosis


Structural assessment of the left ventricle

Assessing left ventricle systolic function

Structural assessment of the left atrium

Estimation of left ventricular diastolic filling pressure

Ultrasound findings in left-sided CHF

Structural assessment of the right ventricle and atrium

Ultrasound findings in right-sided CHF

Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade




Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

Ventricular arrhythmias

5. Treatment principles

Emergency treatment

Oxygen therapy

Ventilatory support

Drainage of effusions

Anxiety control



Sodium nitroprusside

Long-term treatment


Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors





Beta blockers

Dietary considerations

Long-term drug treatment


  • Autor/es Javier Esteban Rodríguez Velarde
  • Fecha de edición febrero 2019
  • Nº Páginas 48
  • Encuadernación Tapa dura
  • Tamaño 17 X 24
  • Idioma Inglés