Orthopaedic pathologies of the stifle joint
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Orthopaedic pathologies of the stifle joint

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This book deals with the main orthopaedic conditions of the stifle joint in dogs and cats, so veterinary surgeons can assess, diagnose and treat the disorders commonly seen in their practice. It is intended to help veterinary clinicians make a correct diagnosis and prognosis and establish the most appropriate drug or surgical treatment for each case. Orthopaedic pathologies of the stifle joint contains plenty of high-quality images and illustrations as well as links to videos through QR codes, which provide additional information and contribute to making the book even more practical.

José Luis Vérez-Fraguela

Licentiate Degree in Veterinary Medicine and Doctorate Degree in Animal Medicine and Health from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Extremadura (UEX). Graduate in Law from the Spanish National University of Distance Education (UNED). Teacher and researcher in the Department of Surgery at the UEX. Researcher in the Experimental Surgery Unit at the University Hospital Complex of A Coruña (CHUAC). Member of the Department of Animal Medicine and Health of the UEX. Scientific adviser in veterinary orthopaedics at the Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (CCMIJU) in Cáceres (Spain). He has gained experience at universities in Europe, the United States and Japan. Spanish National Research Award in 1998. European patent in 2011. He has undertaken various subsidised research projects and is a scientific reviewer for various journals. He is also a member of the scientific committee and an organiser for different courses, conferences and monographs. He has over 70 publications, comprising books, essays and original publications, and has given countless lectures and courses. Honorary President of the Spanish Society of Veterinary Orthopaedics and Traumatology (SETOV).

Roberto Köstlin

Doctorate Degree in Veterinary Medicine from the National University of the Northeast in Corrientes (Argentina). Doctorate Degree in Veterinary Medicine and teaching qualification at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich (Germany). Diploma from the European College of Veterinary Surgeons (ECVS). Senior Lecturer in Surgery at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hanover (Germany). Senior Lecturer in Surgery and Ophthalmology at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. Member of the scientific committee and organiser for various courses and conferences. He has published several books and has over 100 scientific publications to his credit. He has given countless international lectures on every continent. Honorary Member of the Spanish Society of Veterinary Orthopaedics and Traumatology (SETOV).

Rafael Latorre Reviriego

Professor of Veterinary Anatomy. He earned his Doctorate Degree in Veterinary Medicine from the University of Murcia in 1990. He has gained experience at the University of Milan (Italy); the University of California, Davis (United States); the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); the University of Tennessee (United States); and the University of London (United Kingdom). His work has largely focused on the clinical anatomy of the musculoskeletal system. He has made important contributions in the form of atlases and books, as well as scientific articles published in prestigious journals, mainly on diagnostic imaging of joints. Thanks to his involvement in developing and teaching anatomical plastination techniques as a working tool in clinical anatomy, he is now the President of the International Society for Plastination.

Salvador Climent Peris

Professor Emeritus at the University of Zaragoza since 2012 Graduate in Veterinary Medicine from the University of Zaragoza, 1969. Professor of Veterinary Anatomy and Embryology since 1982. He has completed terms at the Anatomy Departments of the Faculties of Medicine at the University of Zaragoza, Madrid Complutense University and the Free University of Brussels, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Toulouse, and the Animal Biology Department at the University of Clermont-Ferrand (France). He has been actively involved in the set-up and development of CCMIJU in Cáceres since 1986, taking part in the design, preparation and selection of appropriate animal models for the specialisation courses in minimally invasive surgical techniques taught at the school.

Francisco Miguel Sánchez Margallo

Scientific Director of the CCMIJU in Cáceres. He earned his Licentiate Degree and Doctorate Degree in Veterinary Medicine from the UEX. Spanish Royal Academy of Doctors Award in 2001. He is a Project Manager for surgery and minimally invasive techniques related to biomaterials, medical instruments, preclinical trials, medical diagnostic imaging, endoscopy, minimally invasive surgical procedures and new surgical technologies. He is the author of multiple patents, utility models and industrial designs. He is a lecturer in various university postgraduate training programmes and director of various official master’s degree programmes and university specialist courses. He is deputy director of the Singular Spanish Scientific and Technological Infrastructure (ICTS) named Nanbiosis. There, he works in close collaboration with researchers, surgeons, physicians, entrepreneurs and engineers in biomedicine as well as with various universities in Spain and elsewhere and hospitals and companies all over the world.

He is the author of over 140 articles in high-impact publications and has contributed to over 500 papers at conferences in Spain and abroad related to surgery and surgical technology. He has actively contributed to over 80 R&D projects and has led several projects in Europe and beyond. He has directed 25 doctoral dissertations and is currently directing five predoctoral students. He is the author or co-author of 16 books and over 50 book chapters related to surgery and minimally invasive surgery. At present, he is a member of the Technology Committee of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES), the international Society for Medical Innovation and Technology (iSMIT), the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC), the Spanish Association of Urology (AEU), the Spanish Society of Surgical Research (SEIQ), and several Spanish and European technology platforms. He is a reviewer for many scientific publications and a member of the editorial board of several international scientific publications.

Jesús Usón Gargallo

Licentiate Degree and Doctorate Degree in Veterinary Medicine from the University of Zaragoza. He is an expert in Animal Pathology and has served for many years as a Professor in the Department of Surgical Pathology and Surgery of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Extremadura. In Aragon, he directed the School of Animal Surgery at the Experimental Institute of Surgery and Reproduction. With the idea of translating biomedicine to a technology project, in 1986, he moved to Cáceres. There, he established the starting point of the present-day Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (CCMIJU). He is currently the Honorary President of this centre. In addition to his teaching work, he has had a productive research career with a particular interest in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The excellent results of his research have attracted the most renowned Spanish and foreign specialists. Today, the CCMIJU is a global landmark and a centre of reference in Spain and elsewhere for research and teaching in minimally invasive surgery.

He has directed over 40 doctoral dissertations and has contributed to 49 research projects in various fields of specialisation such as laparoscopy, endoscopy and microsurgery. He is the author of several books and many scientific articles published in high-impact journals and co-author of the “City of Health and Innovation” project, which will promote the transfer of technology between companies, technology agents and universities. He has over 20 patents and industrial designs to his credit and has directed the design of 10 mobile apps. His many awards include the Gold Medal of Merit in Work and the Gold Medal of Extremadura.

1. Semiology of the stifle joint

3D drawings of the anatomical structures



Bone structures

Capsuloligamentous structures


Musculotendinous system

Clinical examination



Manoeuvres to detect intra-articular fluid

Manoeuvres to evaluate mobility

Arthrocentesis of the stifle joint

2.Clinical evaluation of the stifle joint and decision-making

Medical history

Clinical examination

Visual inspection

Matters and signs to be evaluated in the physical examination

Radiological examination

Therapeutic approach to soft tissue injuries

Exploratory tests of the stifle joint


Menisci and ligaments

Other structures

Algorithms for decision-making

3. Fractures of the bones related to the stifle joint

Fractures of the distal end of the femur

Aetiology of the injury

Clinical examination

Radiological examination



Fractures of the proximal end of the tibia


Clinical examination

Radiological examination


Traumatic injuries of the patella




4. Injuries of the flexors and extensors of the stifle joint

Anatomy and biomechanics of the extensors

The quadriceps femoris muscle and its tendon of insertion

The patella

The patellar ligament and the infrapatellar fat pad

Main disorders

Rupture of the collateral ligaments

Rupture of the patellar ligament

Tearing and ossification of the tendon of origin of the long digital extensor muscle

Dislocation of the tendon of origin of the long digital extensor muscle

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Chondropathy or chondromalacia of the patella

Dislocation of the stifle joint

Fat pad abnormalities (Hoffa’s disease)


5. Dislocation of the stifle joint and patella

Dislocation of the stifle joint

Mechanism and classification

Associated injuries


Dislocation of the patella

Mechanism and classification


6. Injuries of the ligaments and menisci of the stifle joint


Biomechanics of the stifle joint

Capsule and ligaments


Rupture of the cruciate ligaments

Biomechanics in the failure of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mechanism

Clinical signs


Treatment of rupture of the cruciate ligaments

Injuries of the meniscus

Postoperative care

7. Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy using Slocum’s technique


Basic biomechanics and history of the technique

Surgical technique

Postoperative care

8. Surgical technique for tibial tuberosity advancement


Basic biomechanics

Preoperative plan

Surgical technique

Postoperative radiographic monitoring

Postoperative care

9. Osteochondritis dissecans and osteonecrosis

Osteochondritis dissecans


Aetiopathogenesis and location





Epidemiology and location



10. Osteoarthritis



Basic mechanisms associated with the start of the process

Clinical implications


Limited mobility

Joint abnormalities


Medical treatment

Surgical treatment

11. Soft tissue disease


Intra-articular diseases

Injury in the synovial folds or plicae

Bursitis and pain in the infrapatellar fat pad

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

Musculotendinous diseases

Rupture of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle

Contracture of the quadriceps femoris muscle

Rupture and injury of the patellar ligament

Patellar tendinitis

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Periarticular injuries

Cranial aspect

Caudal aspect

Medial aspect

Lateral aspect

Annex. Surgical approaches

Approach to the distal portion of the femur and stifle joint through a lateral incision

Approach to the medial collateral ligament and caudomedial region of the stifle joint

Approach to the lateral collateral ligament and caudolateral region of the stifle joint

Approach to the proximal portion of the tibia through a medial incision


  • Autor/es Francisco Miguel Sánchez Margallo, Jesús Usón Gargallo, José Luis Vérez-Fraguela, Rafael Latorre Reviriego, Roberto Köstlin, Salvador Climent Peris
  • Fecha de edición marzo 2017
  • Nº Páginas 192
  • Encuadernación Tapa dura
  • Tamaño 22 X 28
  • Idioma Inglés

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