Servet Clinical Guides: Chronic Kidney Disease
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Servet Clinical Guides: Chronic Kidney Disease

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This Servet Clinical Guide on chronic kidney disease provides veterinary surgeons with the most up-to-date information on this disease to help them establish diagnosis and select the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Readers are provided with a series of guidelines, presented in a visual and dynamic manner, that will help them develop an effective relationship with the owner and explain the key aspects of their pets disease.

Carmen María Pineda Martos

Carmen María Pineda Martos received her degree in veterinary medicine (2008), her master’s degree in Animal Health, Medicine, and Improvement (2009), and her PhD in veterinary medicine (2014) from the University of Córdoba. She is a member of the PAIDI CTS-179 Veterinary Internal Medicine research group of the University of Cordoba and the GC-13 Calcium Metabolism and Vascular Calcification research group of the Maimónides Biomedical Research Institute of Córdoba (IMIBIC). She has been a visiting clinician at several prestigious international veterinary centres. Currently, she teaches as an assistant professor in the Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery of the University of Córdoba and works in clinical practice in the Small Animal Internal Medicine Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Córdoba, focusing in particular on nephrology and urology.

She has authored and co-authored multiple notable scientific publications, book chapters, and communications presented at national and international conferences.

Ignacio López Villalba

Ignacio López Villalba received his PhD in veterinary medicine from the University of Córdoba in 2002. He is associate professor of veterinary internal medicine at the Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery of the University of Córdoba, and head of the Small Animal Internal Medicine Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Córdoba. He has worked as a visiting researcher at several prestigious veterinary hospitals in the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, and South America. He has worked in clinical practice at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Córdoba since 2003 and at the Veterinary Oncology Centre (CIOVET) since 2015.

He is the author of over 70 scientific publications in international journals specialising in internal medicine, and has spoken at more than 130 congresses and national and international postgraduate seminars. He has received numerous awards for his research work.


María Luisa Suárez Rey

María Luisa Suárez Rey received her degree in veterinary medicine from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Lugo) of the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain (1991). In 1997, she was awarded her PhD in veterinary medicine by the same university. She began her teaching career as an associate professor in 1997 and is currently a professor of veterinary clinical medicine at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lugo. She is AVEPA certified in internal medicine and works as an internal medicine specialist at the Rof Codina Veterinary Teaching Hospital.

1. Visit to the clinic

What is chronic kidney disease?

What is the first sign that the owner observes?

Anamnesis to guide the diagnosis

Risk factors

Differential clinical signs

Clinical examination protocol

Points to which particular attention should be paid

2. Diagnostic protocols

Identifying the primary disease

Most common laboratory alterations


Blood biochemical analysis


Acid–base and electrolyte analyses

Blood pressure measurement

Useful diagnostic imaging tests



Computed tomography

Magnetic resonance imaging


Specialised diagnostic tests

Estimation of glomerular filtration rate

New markers of renal function

How to manage phosphocalcic metabolism


Renal biopsy

Staging and diagnostic criteria for CKD

3. Communication with the pet owner

How to inform the owner

Can an animal with CKD be cured?

Can disease progression be predicted?

CKD prognosis

How long can an animal live with CKD?

What factors influence survival time?

Guidelines to follow once diagnosis is established

4. Treatment protocols

Medical treatment of the patient

Dietary modification as a fundamental pillar of treatment

Correction of dehydration and management of acid–base and electrolyte alterations

Treatment of gastrointestinal signs

Treatment of anaemia

Treatment of hyperphosphataemia

Treatment of hypertension

Treatment of proteinuria

Other treatments


Mesenchymal stem cell therapy



Control of uraemic crisis in cases of exacerbation of CKD

Use of replacement therapies

5. Guidelines for the owner: follow-up

Owner involvement, a key element in the management of CKD

What signs should be monitored once diagnosis is established?

How often should periodic check-ups be performed?

How often should a patient with CKD visit the veterinary clinic?

What should we do when the disease progresses to terminal stages?

6. Appendix

Suggested treatment protocols according to IRIS CKD stage

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  • Autor/es Carmen María Pineda Martos, Ignacio López Villalba, María Luisa Suárez Rey
  • Fecha de edición agosto 2020
  • Nº Páginas 144
  • Encuadernación Tapa dura
  • Tamaño 17 X 24
  • Idioma Inglés

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